35+ Best AWS Interview Questions To Hire Or Get Hired With

Amazon AWS is undeniably the most popular service for sophisticated engineering devops. This is the infrastructure behind some of the most popular and large web applications used by millions. When companies think seriously about their offerings and being able to scale their services, Amazon AWS is the thing in question to use. It has now become quite a staple in terms of its use. As an engineer, you will be required to have a firm understanding of Amazon AWS. Below are some helpful interview questions and answers to get you started. Some of these questions pertain to the more advanced Amazon AWS engineer, who shows experience. And others are a bit more basic. With all interview questions its important you don't copy the language verbatim but instead practice your own set of answers with a close friend.


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1. What is AWS?

AWS represents Amazon Web Services. It is a server side and hosting platform that gives secure cloud based services, general database storage and allows the general computing of power and content delivery along with other services to develop different levels in business. Essentially, a server hosting platform.

2. What are some of the main parts of AWS?

• Easy E-mail Service: which allows the addressing of email which utilizes Restful API requests or through normal SMTP requests
• Route 53: Route53 is a general DNS web service
• Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): It provides on demand computing sources for the purposes of hosting. It is very valuable in trouble of some of the variable workloads.
• Identity and Access Management: this solution gives upgraded protection and identity control for the AWS account that you have.
• Cloud Watch: this is used to observe AWS resources, it gives the managers the ability to inspect and get key insights. At the same time, an engineer should be able to produce a notification or alert when thre's a state of crisis.
• Elastic Block Store: it presents sufficient storage masses, which connect to EC2 to allow you to endure data beyond the lifespan of the particular EC2.

3. What is the engineering significance of "Buffer" in Amazon Web Services (AWS)?

Buffer is an elastic load balancer which makes sure the incoming traffic is distributed in an optimal manner across different AWS instances or zones. A buffer is going to synchronize various components and makes the general arrangements elastic to a burst of load or what would be considered web traffic. The components would be likely to work in such a way that is unstable for the reception and process of requests. The buffer creates sort of an equilibrium so to speak, that links the different apparatus' and crafts an effort at the identical rate in order to supply rapid web services (or back to serving a surge of inbound traffic).

4. What is AMI?

The amazon Machine Image is the full form of AMI. It is a template, which gives the information concerning the server, operating system, and applications, which are needed to launch an instance, which is the replica of the AMI running in the cloud as the virtual server. One instance can be launched from different AMIs as the main requirement.

5. Explain the link between an AMI and an instance.

A single Amazon Machine Image can be utilized for launching different instances. The hardware of the host computer utilized by the instance can be defined according to the instance type. Each instance is given according to different capabilities of computing and memory. When the instance has been launched, then it looks like the traditional host and could be interacted like that of the computer.

6. What would be the best way to secure data when deploying it into the cloud (AWS)?

One of the things that has to be ensured by the engineer is that no one ought to seize the information within the cloud while the data is still moving from one particular point to the next. Basically, there shouldn't be any security or data leakage with the security key from different storerooms that are in the cloud. The segregation or transference of information/data from the additional information from the company (basically security keys) and the subsequent encryption through the means of approved methods would be one of the options.

7. What does the AWS availability zone mean to developers?

When the engineer would like to collect resource information of AWS then he/she would have to go through the AWS availability zone. When it comes to fault tolerance, appropriately designed applications will have to be designed. So to make sure the fault tolerance is in a healthy state, and the AZs have low latency connections between each other.

8. What are the general advantages of AWS to clients?

AWS is very reliable as a trusted web service from Amazon. It is a secure cloud services platform, which would help take the business or applications to the next great levels of success. Customers that operate on a global level/scale already preferred the AWS platform, solutions and products for building reliable applications that have flexibility and reliability. It is a strong IT infrastructure for the larger scale and smaller enterprises. That would mean you have to clear the basic first in order to clear the interview.

9. What employment positions are available in amazon web service?

Almost all of the time Amazon is looking to hire product managers, software development engineers, solution architects, support engineers, designers and account managers to support its business. There are many other types of positions available at Amazon but these are some.

10. What is the definition of scalable when it comes to AWS?

The features of being able to grow in application scope (increased application and features), capacity and size when required according to demand would be the best definition in scalable/scalability when it comes to amazon web service.


aws interview questions


11. State the different layers of cloud computing

• Saas: software as a service
• PaaS: platform as a service
• Iaas: infrastructure as a service

12. Is it possible to scale vertically on an amazon AWS instance?

• Twist a fresh large instance than the one which is being governed at the moment
• The engineer can delay that instance and then separate the source masses of the server and dispatch
• Quit the existing instance and separate the source quantity.
• Note the different machine ID's and then connect this source mass to the fresh server

13. What is the Lambda Edge (Lambda@Edge) in AWS?

• In AWS, it is possible to utilize Lambda@Edge utility for solving the problem of low network latency for the end users.
• In Lambda@Edge there would not be a need for provision or managing the servers. It is possible to upload the Node.js code to AWS Lambda and initiate functions that are going to be triggered on the CloudFront requests.
• When a request for the content is attained by CloudFront edge location, then the Lambda code should be ready for implementation.
• This is an optional option for scaling of the operations in CloudFront without the managing of servers.

14. What is the main differences between flexibility and scalability?

The aptitude of schemes so that they can enhance the particular tasks on hand on the present hardware resources to grip inconsistency in command is termed as general scalability. The ability of the scheme to augment the tasks available on the present and supplementary hardware property would be known as flexibility thus allowing the industry to convene command that does not have the infrastructure at all, meaning it is able to serve beyond its current state of capacity. AWS has different configurations management solutions, which are concerned with and speak to scalability, flexibility, availability and management.

15. What problems would you have when you try to access the websiteor application with only one particular IP address?

It can lead to minor but impactful issues on the front-end (the actual application or website) when you suddenly attempt to access the website with one sole internet protocol address. The assumption is that: • An engineer has to keep on remembering the internet protocol address in order to better use it further during the future.
• When you have to keep remembering the internet protocol (or IP) address so that you can use it more in the future.

16. What reaction do you have when I say the term, high availability?

When there is a desire to access a similar thing in AWS with the use of different platforms then this may be called "high availability". It is in reference to the basic and the advanced procedure of accessing something using the available multiple platforms. In order to better understand this, the engineer has to collect more information concerning the high availability requirement.

17. How does an engineer bring the website content back to the end user when they submit the domain name (DNS information) into the general web browser?

Apparently, every website has the unique domain naming system or DNS. That means a unique internet protocol or IP address can be connected to the DNS and each website. The next cases may happen when an engineer wants to submit the domain name into the web browser:

• The web hosting services would then get the input or signal in the form of the request. Following that, the web server hosting company may revert back the request using suitable results to the process.
• When running a browser, it may send a request to the internet protocol address and that IP address is going to be connected automatically to the name of the domain.
• At times the domain naming system may send the IP address back to the end user.
• The web browser is going to contact a naming system for bringing back the website content to the users.

18. What are the different server event types which are triggered by Amazon Cloud Front?

• Viewer request: this is when the end user or a particular client program makes a HTTPS/HTTP request to CloudFront, and so the event is triggered at the Edge Location is closer to the end users real location.
• Origin Request: when the CloudFront server does not have the particular requested object within the cache so the request is forwarded to Origin server. At this time, the event is usually triggered within the framework.
• Viewer Response: when a CloudFront server is ready so it can respond to a request, the event is triggered.
• Origin Response: when the CloudFront server at the Edge location gets the response from Origin server, the ops logic event is triggered.


aws interview questions


19. Which particular Automation processes can assist with Spinup of Amazon Services?

The API tools Amazon offers may be used for the spin-up services or bootup sever as well as the written scripts. These scripts are done in Perl, bash or the language of choice. There is another option, which entails stipulation tools like an improved descendant. A tool named Scalr may also be utilized and a controlled explanation like Rightscale can be used too.

20. How do you construct an AMI?

• Configure an EC2 instance and the attached EBS volumes in the same manner that would want them done in the custom AMI.
• Log out of the instance but do not stop or terminate it.
• Log in to the AWS management console and display the EC2 page for the region and then click; instances.
• Choose the instance from which you want to create a custom AMI.
• Click on ‘actions’ and then on ‘create image’
• Type a name for the Image Name which is identifiable to you then, input text for Image Description
• Click Create Image
• Read the message box, which appears. In order to view the AMI status, go to the AMI page. There it will be possible to see the AMI being created. It may take some time to create the AMI. Plan for 20 minutes or longer if you have installed additional applications or data

21. Why does an engineer utilize common language domain names as opposed to the IP addresses specifically?

The common language domain names are much simpler to remember and communicate which is why it is easier for one to prefer to use common language domain names as opposed to internet protocol addresses.

22. Give a difference between on demand instance and spot instance.

Spot instances are spare and unused EC2 instances that an engineer is able to bid for. Once the bid goes beyond the existing spot price that changes in real time according to demand and supply, then the spot instance is going to be launched. In the event, the spot price becomes more compared to the bid price; the instance is going to go away anytime and could be terminated within a span of 2 minutes of notice. The best way of deciding on the optimal bid price for the spot instance is checking the price history of the previous 90 days, which is available on the AWS console. The advantage of spot instances would be they are very cost effective and the disadvantage is they may be terminated at any time. Spot instances are the ideal when:

• You have a good or flexible workload that can be run when there is sufficient computing capacity
• Tasks, which need extra computing capacity in order to improve the levels of performance

The on demand instances are available at the time when they are needed and there is a need to pay for the time you use them on an hourly basis. These particular instances may be released when they are not needed any more and do not require upfront types of commitments. The availability of these instances is not necessarily guaranteed by AWS, not like the spot instances. The best practice would be launching some on demand instances that can maintain a minimum level of guaranteed compute resources for applying and add-on few spot instances when there is a chance to do so.

23. Give an explanation for TC2 instances.

These instances are particularly designed to give moderate performance and the caliber to burst to a higher level of performance according to the requirements, considering the workload.

24. What is auto scaling as it relates to Amazon AWS?

This is one of the outstanding and sought after features within AWS that allows the arrangement and stipulation robotically and the spin up fresh resources to serve up the applications to the end user. This would be achieved through setting appropriate metrics and brinks to watch. An example of the selection of the user is configured, spin-up and copied to the collection of the weight planner if you overcome all of the entrances.

25. What is the key differences between horizontal and vertical scaling in AWS?

This alludes to the way an egineer would add compute resources to the infrastructure. In vertical scaling more power is added to the current machine though when it comes to horizontal scaling additional resources can be added to the system with the addition of machinery to the network so the workload and processing can be shared among different devices. The best way for an engineer to understand the difference is imagining retiring the old Honda so that you can buy a Mustang because you need more power. That is generally what it described as vertical scaling. The other way to get that much-desired power is not ditching the one car but buying another one. This may be related to horizontal scaling where you can figuratively drive more than one car at the same time. When the users are up to 100, then an EC2 instance would be sufficient to run the entire web application or the database up to the time that traffic increases. Under these circumstances when the traffic goes up, it would be better to vertically scale through the increase of the capacity of the EC2 instance in order to meet the demands of the application. AWS supports instances, which are up to 128 virtual cores, or 488 GB RAM. During the time the users for the application grow to the level of 1000 or more, the vertical scaling may not be able to handle requests and there would be a need for horizontal scaling that is attained through a distributed file system, as well as load balancing and clustering.

26. What are some of the key features of Amazon EC2 services?

This is a cloud service type meaning it has all of the cloud features. It provides just some of the following features:

• Virtual computing environment (or VCE)
• Pre-configured templates for the instances which are the AMIs
• Amazon EC2 gives different configurations of CPU, storage and capacities for networking the instances
• Secure login information for the EC2 instances using key pairs as AWS stores the public key and the private keys would be stored in a secure place.
• Storage volumes of temporary data that would be deleted when an engineer stops or terminates the instance
• A firewall that allows you to give specifics on protocols, ports and source IP ranges which can reach the instances with the use of security groups
• Static IP addresses for dynamic cloud computing operations
• Amazon EC2 gives metadata
• Amazon gives virtual networks that are logically isolated from the rest of the AWS cloud. It is optional that it is connected to the network.

27. Can you give me a general explanation for the storage inside an Amazon EC2 instance.

Amazon instance gives a number of data storage alternatives for the instances. Each of the options comes available with a combination of both performance and durability. These storages would be independently used or used in combination to suit specific operations requirements.

There are four storage types given by AWS

• Amazon EBS: this is durable and has block level storage volumes may be attached in running Amazon EC2 instance. The Amazon EBS volume also lives independently from the running life of the Amazon EC2 instance. After the EBS volume is attached to one instance, it is possible to use it in the same way as other physical hard drives. Amazon EBS encryption features also support encryption attributes.
• Amazon S3: amazon S3 gives access to reliable and a cost effective data storage infrastructure. It can be designed for the purpose of making web scale computing to be easier through allowing an individual to store and retrieve any data amount at any time from the Amazon EC2 or any location on the web.
• Adding storage to AWS: each time that an engineer launches an instance from an AMI, a root storage device is initiated from that specific instance. This root storage device has all of the information needed for booting the instance. It is possible to specify certain storage volumes in addition to the root device when creating an AMI or launching of an instance with the use of the block device mapping tool.
• Amazon EC2 Instance Store: Storage disc, which is attached to the host computer, is known as the instance store. The instance storage provides temporary block level storage for the Amazon EC2 instances. If one of the engineers is to stop or terminate an instance, any data on the instance store volumes is then lost.

28. Discuss stopping, starting and terminating of an Amazon EC2 Instance.

• The stopping and starting an AWS instance: when an instance is stopped by the engineer, the instance performs the normal type of shut down process and then transitions to the stopped state. Every one of the amazon EBS volumes remains attached so that you can begin the instance at a later period. You are not charged for additional instance hours used through the instance when it is in a stopped state.
• Terminating an instance in AWS: when an instance is terminated, the instance performs its shutdown process then the attached Amazon EBS volumes are deleted unless the volumes deleteOnTermination element is set to false. The instance is then deleted and an engineer can begin the instance all over again at a later time.

29. Can you please explain elastic block storage. What performance might you expect? Is it possible to have backups? How does an engineer improve on performance?

EBS represents virtualized SAN or the storage area network. That is to mean it is RAID storage to begin with so that would be fault tolerant and redundant. If disks die within that RAID then you do not lose data. It is also virtualized so it is possible to provision and allocate the storage and then it can be attached to the server with different API calls. There is no need to call the storage expert from Amazon and ask them to run specialized commands from the hardware vendor.

• Performance on EBS may show some general variations. That would mean it could go above the performance of the SLA and then drop below that level. The SLA would allow the average disk I/O rate, which is expected. This would frustrate a number of people such as the performance experts that have the expectation of reliable and consistent disk throughout on the server. In the traditional sense, the hosted servers would behave in this manner as the Virtual AWS instances do not.
• Backup EBS volumes through the snapshot functionality through the API request or via the GUI interface such as elasticfox inside the AWS dashboard. You can improve performance using Linux software raid and striping across the four volumes if you'd like.

30. Can you tell me what the configuration management system is and why would you want to utilize it with cloud provisioning of resources?

Configuration management has been available for some time in several web operations as well as system administration tools. Though, the cultural popularity of the matter has been limited somewhat recently. A number of system administrators configure machines like software, which were developed before version control, which is manually making changes on the servers. Each of the servers is slightly unique. Though the process of troubleshooting can be straightforward as an engineer then logs into the box and operates directly with it. Configuration management allows for a large automation tool as it manages the servers. This would bring standardization, and appropriate practices as the configurations are managed and version. It also allows for a new method of working that is a very big hurdle to the adoption. The configuration management then becomes critical to the engineer. That is because the virtual servers like Amazon's EC2 are less reliable when they are compared to the physical machines. An engineer needs such a mechanism in order to rebuild them the way they are at any time. That would push the appropriate practices such as disaster recovery and automation from the center stage.

31. How possible is it to safeguard the EC2 instances on the VPC?

AWS Security groups linked with EC2 instances may assist you to safeguard EC2 instances running in a VPC through giving security at the protocol and port access level. It is possible to configure both INBOUND and OUTBOUND traffic, which allows secured access for the EC2 instance. The AWS security groups are more similar to a firewall as they have certain sets of rules that filter the traffic going in and out of the EC2 instance and deny any form of unauthorized access to the EC2 instances.

32. How many EC2 instances can be utilized within an Amazon VPC?

There is a particular limit of running to a total of 20 on demand instances across the instance family. You can purchase 20 reserved instances as well as spot instances considering your dynamic spot limit region.

33. What are the best main practices for security in Amazon EC2?

• Create individual Identity and Access Management users to control access to the AWS recourses. The creation of a separate IAM user provides separate credentials for each user making it possible in order to assign different permissions to each of them according to the access requirements. • Secure the AWS Root account and the access keys.
• Harden EC2 instances through the disabling of unnecessary devices and applications through only installing the needed software and tools within the EC2 instances.
• Define and review the security group rules regularly.
• Grant the least privileges through opening of permissions required to perform specific tasks and not more than that. Additional permissions may then be granted as required.
• Define and review the security group rules on a regular basis.
• Have a well-defined password policy for each of the users.
• Deploy anti-virus on the AWS network to protect it from Trojans and viruses.

34. What are the significant attributes of the classic load balancer in EC2?

• The high availability feature that makes certain the traffic is distributed among the EC2 instances in the single or multiple availability zones. That makes sure the high scale of availability for incoming traffic. • The classic load balancer may decide whether to route the traffic or not according to the results of the health check.
• It is possible to implement secure load balancing in a network through the creation of security groups in the VPC.
• The classic load balancer supports sessions, which make certain the traffic from the user is routed to the same instance for a seamless type of experience.

35. What is Redshift as it relates to Amazon AWS?

This is a petabyte-scale (petabyte is very large) data repository service where implementation is easy and cost effective to efficiently investigate the data through employing the current marketing intelligence devices that perform at a high speed.

36. Can you please explain the AWS certificate manager.

The AWS Certificate manager that can be abbreviated to ACM manages the complexity entailing, providing, extending and regulating the certificates granted over ACM to the user’s AWS based forms and websites. People or engineers work on ACM to maintain and petition the certificates and practices the other Amazon web services for the website’s purpose. The ACM certificates cannot be handled outside the jurisdiction of AWS.

author: patrick algrim
About the author

Patrick Algrim is an experienced executive who has spent a number of years in Silicon Valley hiring and coaching some of the world’s most valuable technology teams.

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